In the name of GOD, the most beneficent, the most merciful.

Read in the name of your Lord who creates.

اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ
بنام خدا ؛ هستی بخش مهربان

بخوان بنام پروردگارت ، آنکه بیافریند

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Akhavan M.D.  

The Faith that I believe in


June 2004


Islam is the religion which is acclaimed by prophets to enhance peace, security, brotherhood and justice for all - promoting growth & development of the mankind. Any person or society practicing those principles is Muslim even if he doesn't call himself muslim and any person or society who doesn't attend to those principles is not Muslin although he may call himself real muslim.

The Prophets' messages been gradually altered because of their followers ignorance and the oppressive behavior of religious hierarchy so much so that it is now impossible to separate God's Word from their hearsays. Quran is an exception and has miraculously remained unaltered, for the following reasons

B.1- Prophet Mohammed emphaticly forbade his followers of writing down anything from him except Quran. This order was followed till second and third century A.H. when it started to be ignored and books of "Ahadith" and "Ravayaat" started to be written about the traditions and behavior of Prophet Mohammed. Fortunately these writings were presented as separate books and Quran -unlike Avesta, Torat or Bilble- continued to remain unaltered

B.2- Invention of "Printing" made it possible to print Quran in millions and millions of copies without any handwriting errors and alterations. At the present, among Billions copies of Quran including many recent digitalized copies, one finds no discrepancy. They are all the same as several hand written copies which are kept in libraries left from the Caliph Ottoman's era

B.3 - For those who have faith in Quran this miraculous event of non-alteration was predictable. Quran says that Prophet Mohammed is the last prophet who seals the prophecy. Also it says Prophets were sent one after another to correct those alterations which were made to the Books of Devine Revelations. We can conclude that there won't be any need for more prophets because there won't be any further alterations

I believe that Faith and its principles should be accepted after thinking and understanding it, and not by immitation and following others. (Quran, 17:36) e

I agree that we should have scholars who with a good knowledge of Quran and historical events be able to answer people's questions. Their answer (Fatwa) is only an opinion and the questioner is free to accept it or seek another opinion. The Religious Scholars have no executive power and have no right to declare someone guilty of apostasy when he claims to be muslem. They are not immaculate and they are not God's Attorney General for sure

December 2004

I have come to this conclusion that humans have two kinds of affairs
A- Worldly Affairs: which, contrary to Sufis' idea that "people ought to avoid those affairs and leave it to others!", should be persued vigorously, advancing the science, technology and art,and together with the social justice to achieve a peaceful and comfortable life for everyone. West civilization has advanced so much because of all those efforts, though unfortunately it has not paid any attention to the Moral affairs (the second group which follows). Democracy is the best way of government for achieving these goals and "Universal Decleration of Human Rights" is a good ground rules for this purpose

B- Moral Affairs: which are served by self-discovery, self-improvement, love, generosity and good deeds. Fortunately persian culture has a rich litrature in this regards. Prophets also been appointed for advancing these affairs mainly, although some of them were active in establishing some forms of government. It is said that prophet Mohammed proclaimed that " I've come to promote Good Morals".e
At the present, the religious authorities are better not to interfere with the governmental affairs and put all their efforts in promoting the moral affairs

The 'Universal Declaration of Human Rights" is not contrary to teachings of Islam and should be disseminated for educational purposes. So here is the English version of Decleration

Universal Declaration of Human Rights


Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge

Now, therefore,The General Assembly

Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction

Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood

Article 2

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status
Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty

Article 3

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person

Article 4

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms

Article 5

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment

Article 6

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law

Article 7

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination

Article 8

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law

Article 9

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile

Article 10

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him

Article 11

Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed

Article 12

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks

Article 13

Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country

Article 14

Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations

Article 15

Everyone has the right to a nationality
No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality

Article 16

Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution
Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State

Article 17

Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property

Article 18

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance

Article 19

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers

Article 20

Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. No one may be compelled to belong to an association

Article 21

Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives
Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country. The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures

Article 22

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality

Article 23

Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment
Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work
Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection
Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests

Article 24

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay

Article 25

Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control
Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection

Article 26

Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit
Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace
Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children

Article 27

Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits
Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author

Article 28

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized

Article 29

Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible
In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society
These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations

Article 30

Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein

March 2005

I have accepted that

Quran's Shams verses 7-10: " 7- And by the soul and That which perfected it ; 8-Then That, inspired it what is right and wrong for it; 9-Indeed he/she succeeds that purifies it; 10- And indeed he/she fails that corrupts it

These verses summarize the whole subject of "morality". They state: After man's soul is formed, he will be inspired what is good and what is evil. He then becomes able to distinguish good from evil and choose between them. Whoever purifies his soul by choosing good, succeeds and those who remain unpurified fail

Human being has a wide spectrum of characteristics; At one end are the bad characteristics like selfishness, arrogance, deceit, greed, envy, oppression, injustice, etc... and at the other end are the good characteristics like generosity, forgiveness, sincerity, sympathy & love. The purpose of one's life is to move from the lower part of spectrum to the higher part
Our Masters (Arefan) have suggested 4 steps to be taken in this regard
a- Self recognition- knowing yourself and recognizing your faulty characteristics is the first step for improvement
b- Self purification- getting rid of the bad characteristics is the second important but difficult step. They call it "Great Effort=جهاد اکبر
which refers to the internal war with your bad charateristics as opposed to the
جهاد اصغر=Lesser Effort
which is done at war front
c- Self reliance to God- trusting in God, pleasing Him, drawing close to Him, all means acting similar and as close as possible to God. He is Loving, so we should love him and all his created beings too. He is Merciful, so we should have mercy on everyone. He is Forgiving, so we should forgive everyone at all times. And so on.... Spiritual growth means acquiring good characteristics and showing good behavior which draw us closer and closer to God and His paradise
d- Self perception- at last the guided person will find himself in harmony with God, he is pleased with God and God is pleased with him. He has no fear and no sorrow. He is at peace with himself and others. He is ready for another Stage in life and departure to a higher horizon

In Islam, only God defines good and evil. Whoever accepts these Commenments and acts upon them, will benefit in this life and hereafter. Those who reject these Commendments will have to live with the consequences in this life and hereafter. Good and bad as defined by God, do not change in different social situations and/or over the time. They are constant
In the West, followers of the Utilitarian School and in Islam the followers of the minority sect of
define these characteristics as " relative" and put the individual and/or the societal wisdom to (معتزله) differentiate between good and bad. In their opinion anything that is beneficial for individual and the community is good and anything harmful is bad. Of cource, deciding what is beneficial and what is not, also belongs to them! So, in certain communities a characteristic may be defined as good wheras the same characteristic is considered bad in another community or another time period. Each society legislates morality by defining good and bad through laws and punishes those who do not obey those laws. In my opinion this system hasn't been working, because when there is no faith and internal policing, evil thoughts will defy any external policing. On the other hand, those who have faith in God and his commendments, will naturally accept the good characteristics. Therefore, there is no evasion of others rights and no need for law enforcement

More than 2500 years ago Confucius said

"If you govern the people legalistically and control them by punishment, they will avoid crime, but have no personal sense of shame. If you govern them by means of virtue and control them with propriety, they will gain their own sense of shame, and thus correct themselves."e

under construction

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